Actual reporting of all Sexually Tansmitted Diseases (STD) cases is difficult because of the social stigma, poor transport facilities, self and over the counter treatments associated with the diseases. STDs can cause a wide spectrum of effects on an individual ranging from complete absence of symptoms to life threatening complications.
Although many STDs are curable, some are not, and all can lead to serious health consequences. In Developing countries it is one of the top five diseases for which adults seek health care services.
People with an active syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid infection or who have chlamydia, gonorrhoea, or trichomoniasis are 3 to 9 times more likely to contract HIV, if exposed, than other people.
Millions of women, men and children are affected by long-term complications of STDs, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, redisposition to Cancer of Cervix and other chronic diseases, Ectopic Cancer and Cancer of Cervix may be fatal also.
In men it is present as Genital Ulcers, Chronic Urethritis and Epididymatis leading to infertility. In children it may result in blinding eye infections, Pneumonia and low birth weight.
How STD's are transmitted
Unprotected sexual activities.
Transfusion of infected blood to normal person.
Contact of open wound or mucus membrane with infected blood, pus or mucus secretion.
Mother to Child during pregnancy & child birth.
Quality STD care includes the following minimum features
Physicians and other health care providers who have a non-judgmental attitudes to clients with STIs.
Adequate privacy for consultation and clinical examination.
Facilty for STI counselling that provides accurate information on STIs, education on condom usage and provision of condoms and promotion of partner notification.
Facility for basic laboratory investigations.
Effective prescription practices suited to the need of the client.
In Madhya Pradesh all district hospitals provide treatment to STDs at STD Clinics
Medical Colleges are also equipped with STD Clinic, where diagnostic and treatment facilities are available.
Timely Treatment of STD till cure saves many serious complications along with reduced chances of HIV transmission.
Complete treatment of STD patient and his/her partner with regular follow up and counselling advice to use Condoms helps in the cure of patients.
Importance of STD Case Management
To get treatment for their infections at the earliest.
To avoid spreading STDs to their partners.
To bring their sexual partners for treatment.
To come back to make sure that they are cured.
To stay cured without re-infection by using condoms.
To be satisfied with one sexual partner.
To protect their new arrivals by attending antenatal clinics.